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OCCASIONAL PAPERS 

THE MUSEUM 

TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


NUMBER 154 


3 FEBRUARY 1993 


ABBREVIATED GUIDE TO PRONUNCIATION AND 
ETYMOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC NAMES FOR NORTH 
AMERICAN LAND MAMMALS NORTH OF MEXICO 

Frederick B. Stangl, Jr., P. G. Christiansen, 
and Elsa J. Galbraith 

Latin- and Greek-based scientific nomenclature can be bewildering 
to students. The foreign terms appear and sound formidable. Ex¬ 
perienced workers have little difficulty reconciling inconsistencies in 
pronunciation of a given term, but this may be a source of confusion to 
the newcomer. Another problem is a lack of appreciation of the mean¬ 
ing of scientific names, which are intended to convey information 
about the taxa to which they apply. 

The idea of a readily referenced guide to the pronunciation of scien¬ 
tific names occurred to the first author several years ago when faced, as 
an undergraduate biology student, with varying pronunciations of 
Latin and Greek components of names. To realize the completion of 
such a study was made possible only through enlisting the collabora¬ 
tion of a Latin scholar (PGC) and an English teacher turned biology 
graduate student (EJG). Subsequent to the completion of this task, 
several reviewers suggested enhancing the utility of the work by in¬ 
clusion of etymologies for each term, and we have obliged (we have 
since discovered a remarkably similar effort concerning the names of 
genera and subgenera of ants—Wheeler, 1956). Finally, we note that 
during the course of the review process and solicitation of comments 
from colleagues, it became apparent that opinions varied greatly as to 
the content, format, taxonomic coverage, depth, and detail that an ef¬ 
fort such as this should entail. We realize that a biographical sketch for 
each person accorded patronymic recognition would be informative, as 
would explanations of the rather cryptic or at least less than obvious 
inferences of some terms. Condylura (knob-tail) was described from 





2 OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 

an imperfect drawing, for example, Liomys (plain mouse) refers to the 
supposed lack of specialized features, the superficial resemblance of 
Phenacomys (cheat mouse) to other microtines belies its relatively dis¬ 
tant relationships, and Synaptomys (fasten-together mouse) was 
viewed as a link or intermediate taxon between lemmings and other 
voles (Palmer, 1904). However, the limits of any such study must be 
defined, and we have held with our abbreviated format to remain within 
the original scope of this effort. Nevertheless, we hope this guide will 
prove useful to students and professional mammalogists alike. 

Methods 

The series of regularly updated checklists of North American mam¬ 
mals north of Mexico (Jones et al., 1973, 1975, 1979, 1982, 1986) has 
served to promote an acceptable systematic arrangement of taxa for 
specialists as well as for students, and has helped to standardize the 
usage of English or vernacular names of treated species. The most 
recent of these checklists provides the framework for this study, with 
few exceptions. Among these are exclusion of exclusively aquatic 
(Sirenia) or marine mammals (cetaceans and pinniped carnivores), 
recognition of the bat genus Nyctinomops as distinct from Tadarida , 
use of Leptonycteris curasoae in place of L. sanborni (see Arita and 
Humphrey, 1988), and elevation to specific status of Lasiurus blos- 
sevilli and L. xanthinus from L. borealis and L. ega, respectively (Baker 
et al. , 1988), and Geomys knoxjonesi from G. bursarius (Baker et al ., 

1989). The binomen for each species was independently studied and its 
derivation and meaning recorded onto cassette tape by Christiansen to 
eliminate any influence by the other authors. Names then were 
transcribed and phonetically transliterated following the pronunciation 
key given below, and the etymologies were traced. We found the fol¬ 
lowing works useful in obtaining literal meanings for some of the more 
elusive terms: Palmer, 1904; Liddell and Scott, 1940; Conisbee, 1953; 
Brown, 1956; Jaeger, 1959; Gotch, 1979; and Glare, 1982. Patronyms 
are indicated as possessive. Toponymic terms (place names) are made 
more specific parenthetically when possible. A generic name is 
derived only for the first-listed species of polytypic genera unless the 
denvation already is given directly above under the family name (as in 
Didelphidae and Soricidae, for example). As some readers know, most 
ordinal names end in -a; all familial names end in -idae. 

Discussion 

Many standard dictionaries provide pronunciations for widely used 
scientific words; moreover, several useful biological dictionaries are 
available (see, for example, Brown, 1956; Jaeger, 1960; Henderson 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 3 


and Henderson, 1963; Borror, 1971; and Steffanides, 1978). Word 
roots and etymologies of scientific terms typically are listed in such 
works, and pronunciations often are provided for such terms. Addi¬ 
tionally, some regional works on mammals (for example, Lowery, 
1974, for Louisiana; Jones et al 1983, for the northern Great Plains, 
Caire et al ., 1990, for Oklahoma; Sealander and Heidt, 1990, for 
Arkansas) provide information on etymologies of appropriate terms. 
Brief explanations for proper pronunciation of scientific names also 
can be found in other publications directed at specific audiences (for 
example, Ingles, 1965, for mammalogists; Kaston, 1972, for arach- 
nologists; Borror et al ., 1981, for entomologists), and these need not be 
repeated here. However, the numerous exceptions for pronunciation 
or number of involved taxa treated in the above works necessarily limit 
their utility. 

Although etymologies are relatively straightforward, any pronuncia¬ 
tion guide necessarily will be a compromise effort. We realize the im¬ 
possibility of achieving complete acceptance of every pronunciation 
below and of the resulting consistency in pronunciation that would fol¬ 
low. Many terms have been anglicized, and further variation among 
the various English dialects, as well as geographic and temporal 
preferences, can be anticipated (Kenneth, 1963). Given an expected 
primary audience of geographic scope comparable to our taxonomic 
coverage, we have opted for a conservative (from the classical 
linguist’s perspective), anglicized pronunciation. However, we note 
Gray’s (1972) caution that students should accept the pronunciation of 
their current mentors and be prepared to adapt to the linguistic inter¬ 
pretation of their next instructor before deciding on their own preferen¬ 
ces. These variations are . . neither right or wrong; it is simply a 
matter of what is customary in the time and place in which you live 
(Gray, 1972). Nevertheless, it is in the spirit of consistency that we 
offer the following pronunciations. 

Pronunciation Key 

Following the scientific name and suggested pronunciation for each 
taxon is the etymology (in brackets) and literal translation for that 
binomen. Latin (L., classical; NL., modem; ML., medieval) and Greek 
(Gr., classical; LGr. late) comprise the basis for most terms, and are ab¬ 
breviated as indicated. The following origins of word roots are spelled 
out: Amerindian, Aztec (Central American Amerindian), Danish, Es¬ 
kimo, French and Old French, Huron (North American Amerindian), 
Italian, Malay, Russian, and Tupi (Brazilian Amerindian). 

The following pronunciation key is reprinted by permission from 
The American Heritage Dictionary, Second College Edition, copyright 
1985 by Houghton Mifflin Company. 



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OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


a (pat) 

or(foi) 

a (pay) 

oi (noise) 

a (father, car) 

(took) 

ar(care) 

TO (boot) 

e(pfit) 

ou (out) 

e(b££) 

u(cut) 

i (pit) 

ur (mge, firm, word) 

i (pie) 

th (ibin) 

ir (pier) 


6 (pot) 

' —primary stress 

6(tQfi) 

"—secondary stress 


Pronunciations and Etymologies 
Order Marsupialia— mar soupe a' lea 
[= (Gr.) marsippos (bag)] 

Family Didelphidae— di’ d6 Y fi~ de 

[ = (Gr.) dis (twice) + (Gr.) delphys (womb)] 

Didelphis virginiana —di del' f is vir ji ne a' na 
[= of Virginia] 

Order Insectivora— in sek ti r ' v6r a 

(= (L.) insectum (cut into) + (L.) vorare (eat), literally “insect-eating”] 
Family Soricidae— sdr Y si” de 
[= (L.) sorex (shrew-mouse)] 

Sor ex arcticus —sdr' eks ark' ti k66s 
[= of the Arctic] 

Sorex arizonae —sdr' eks ar i zb' ne 
[= of Arizona] 

Sorex bendirii —sor' gks ben' dir i 
[=Bendire’s] 

Sorex cinereus —sor' eks si r nar' e dbs 
[= (L.) cinereus (ashen)] 

Sorex dispar —sor' eks diV par 
[= (L.) dispar (unequal)] 

Sorexfontinalis— sdr' eks fon" ti” n51' is 
[= (L.) fontinalis (pertaining to a fountain)] 

Sorexfumeus —sdr' eks foo' me 66s 
[= (L.) fumeus (smoky)] 

Sorex gaspensis— sdr' eks g&s pgn' sis 
[- Gaspg (Peninsula, Quebec)] 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 5 


Sorex haydeni —sor' 6ks ha' d6n i 
[= Hayden’s] 

Sorex hoyi —s6r' 6ks hoi' i 
[= Hoy’s] 

Sorex hydrodromus —sor'6ks hi drd dr6 md6s 
[= (Gr.) hydor (water) + (Gr.) dromos (running)] 

Sorexjacksoni —sor'6ks jak'soni 
[= Jackson’s] 

Sorex longirostris —sor' 6ks 16n j i rfis' tris 
[= (L.) longus (long) + (L.) rostrum (snout)] 

Sorex lyelli —sor' eks li' 61 i 
[= Lyell’s] 

Sorex merriami —sor' 6ks mar' e a mi 
[= Merriam’s] 

Sorex monticolus —sOr' 6ks mOn ti' ko ld6s 

[= (L.) mons (mountain) + (L.) colere (inhabit)] 

Sorex nanus —sor' 6ks na' nd6s 
[= (Gr.) nanos (dwarf)] 

Sorex ornatus —s6r' 6ks or na' td6s 
[= (L.) omatus (well-equipped)] 

Sorexpacificus —s6r' 6ks pa si' fi kd6s 
[= of the Pacific (Coast)] 

Sorexpalustris —sor' 6ks pa ld6s' tr is 
[= (L.) paluster (marshy)] 

Sorex preblei —sor' eks pr6' b61 i 
[= Preble’s] 

Sorex tenellus —sor' 6ks t6 n61' d6s 
[= (L.) tenellus (soft)] 

Sorex trowbridgii —sori 6ks trd' brij i 
[= Trowbridge’s] 

Sorex tundrensis —sor' 6ks tun dr6n' sis 
[= (Russian) tundra (treeless plain)] 

Sorex ugyunak —sor' 6ks ug' yd6 nak 
[= (Eskimo) ugyunak (shrew)] 

Sorex vagrans —sor' 6k s va' granz 
[= (L.) vagari (wander)] 

Blarina brevicauda —bla ri' na bre vi cou' da 

[= (NL.) blarina (a type of shrew)] [= (L.) brevis (short) + (L.) 

cauda (tail)] 



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OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Blarina carolinensis—b\a ri' na car" 6 li nen' sfs 
[= of (South) Carolina] 

Blarina hylophaga— bla ri' na hi 16' fa ga 
[= (Gr.) hyle (forest) + (Gr.) phagein (eat)] 

Cryptotisparva —krip to' tis par' va 

[= (Gr.) kryptos (hidden) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] [= (L.) parvus (small)] 
Notiosorex crawfordi—nb te 6 sor' eks krou' for di r 
[= (Gr.) notios (southern) + (L.) sorex (shrew-mouse)] 

[= Crawford’s] 

Family Talpidae— til' pi r de 
[= (L.)talpa(mole)] 

Neurotrichus gibbsii —n66 ro'tri“ kd6s gib' si" 

[= (Gr.) ne (not) + (Gr.) oura (tail) + (Gr.) trichos (hair)] 

[= Gibbs’] 

Scapanus latimanus—ska' pa nctos la t V ma nd6s 

[= (Gr.) skapane (spade)] [= (L.) latus (broad) + (L.) manus (hand)] 
Scapanus orarius— skS' pa nd6s 6 rar' e 66s 
[= (L.) orarius (coastal)] 

Scapanus townsendii—ska' pa nd6s toun' s6n di" 

[= Townsend’s] 

Parosealops breweri— par 6' ska lops broo' ur i 

[= (Gr.) para (near) + (Gr.) skalops (blind rat)] [= Brewer’s] 
Scalopus aquaticus~ska 16' pc)6s a kwa' ti" kd6s 

[= (Gr.) skalops (blind rat)] [= (L.) aquaticus (of water)] 

Condyluracristata —k6n di" ld6r' a kri"s ta' ta 

[= (Gr.) kondylos (knob) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] [= (L.) cristatus 
(crested)] 

Order Chiroptera— ki" rop' tur a 

[= (Gr.) cheir (hand) + (Gr.) pteron (wing)] 

Family MORMOOPIDAE—mor mo 6' p[ de 

[= (Gr.) mormo (she-monster) + (Gr.) ops (face)] 

Mormoops megalophylla~mox mo' 6ps m6" ga 16 f i' la 

[= (Gr.) mormo (she-monster) + (Gr.) ops (face)] [= (Gr.) megas 
(big) + (Gr.) phyllon (leaf)] 

Family PHYLLOSTOMiDAE—ffl 6 st6' mi de 
[= (Gr.) phyllon (leaO + (Gr.) stoma (mouth)] 

Macrotuscalifornicus— ma kr6' tdbs kal" i for' ni~ kd6s 
[= (Gr. ) makros (long) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] [= of California] 


STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 7 

Choeronycteris mexicana —ke rO nik' tur is m£k si ka na 

[= (Gr.) khoiros (young pig) + (Gr.) nykteris (bat)] [= of Mexico] 
Leptonycteris curasoae —16p to nik' tur is cur a sou e 
[= of Curasao (Netherlands Antilles)] 

Leptonycteris nivalis —ISp to nik' tflr is ni v51 is 

[= (Gr.) leptos (slender, small) + (Gr.) nykteris (bat)] [= (L.) nivalis 

(snowy)] 

Diphylla ecaudata —di fil' a e kou d5 ta 

[= (Gr.) dis (twice) + (Gr.) phyllon (leaf)] [= (L.) ex (without) 

+ (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Family Vespertilionidae— v6s" pur til e 6' ni de 
[= (L.) vesper (evening)] 

Myotis auriculus —mi 6' tis ou ri kd6ld6s 

[= (Gr.) mys (mouse) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] [= (L.) auricula (ear)] 

Myotisaustroriparius —mi 6' tis ous" tro ri par ed6s 
[= (L.) auster (southern) + (L.) riparius (riparian)] 

Myotis californicus —mi O' tis k&l" i fdr' ni kd6s 
[= of California] 

Myotis ciliolabrum —mi O' tis sil 0 6 la brdbm 
[= (L.) cilium (eyelid) + (L.) labrum (lip)] 

Myotis evotis —mi O'tis 6v 0' tis 

[= (Gr.) eu (good, true) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Myotis grisescens —mi 0' tis gri' si senz 
[= (ML.) griseus (gray)] 

Myotis keenii —mi O' tis ke' ni 
[= Keen’s] 

Myotis leibii —mi 0' tis li'bi 
[= Leib’s] 

Myotis lucifugus —mi 0' tis 100 si' fd6 gdbs 
[= (L.) lux (light) + (L.) fugere (flee)] 

Myotis septentrionalis —mi O' tis s6p ten tre 0 nSl' is 
[= (L.) septentrionalis (northern)] 

Myotis sodalis —mi O'tis sOdal is 
[= (L.) sodalis (comrade)] 

Myotis thysanodes — mi 0' tis the sS nO dez 

[= (Gr.) thysanos (tassel, fringe) + (Gr.) -odes (resemblance)] 

Myotis velifer — mi 0' tis ve' li fur 

[= (L.) velum (sail) + (L.) ferre (carry)] 

Myotisvolans —mi O'tis vO lanz 
[= (L.) volare (fly)] 



8 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Myotisyumanensis—mi 6' tis you"ma n6n' sis 
[= of (Old Fort) Yuma (California)] 

Lasiurus blossevillii—la se SSr' 66s bids' a viV i 

[= (Gr.) lasios (shaggy) + (Gr.) oura (tail)) [= Blosseville’s] 
Lasiurus borealis—la se SBr' 66s bor e 51' is 
[= (Gr.) boreas (northern)] 

Lasiurus cinereus— la se OTSr' 66s s i“nar' e 66s 
[= (L.) cinereus (ashen)] 

Lasiurus ega— la se CTOr' 66s e' ga 

[= (NL.) ega (an undetermined geographical name)] 

Lasiurus intermedius— la se UOt' 66s in" tar me' de 66s 
[ = (L.) intermedius (intermediate)] 

Lasiurus seminolus—l a se fJOr' 66s se mi“no' I66s 
[= of Seminole (Indian territory)] 

Lasiurus xanthinus— la se TOr' 66s zan' thin66s 
[= (Gr.) xanthos (pertaining to yellow)] 

Lasionycteris noctivagans—la" se 6 niVtfir is nok ti' va ganz 

[= (Gr.) lasios (shaggy) + (Gr.) nykteris (bat)] [= (L.) nox (night) 

+ (L.) vagari (wander)] 

Pipistrellus hesperus—pi" pi"strdl' 66s hds' pur 66s 

[= (Italian) pipistrello (bat)] [= (Gr.) hesperos (of evening)] 
Pipistrellus subflavus— pi" pi’ strel' 66s sQb fla' v66s 
[= (L.) sub (under) + (L.) flavus (yellow)] 

Eptesicusfuscus — e P te' si" k66s f66s' k66s 

[= (Gr.) petesthai (fly) + (Gr.) oikos (house)] [= (L.) fuscus 
(dusky)] 

Nycticeius humeral is—nik" ti se' e d6s htromur SI' is 
[= (Gr.) nyktios (of the night)] [= (L.) umerus (shoulder)] 

Euderma maculatum—ym dir' ma mS kd6 la' tdhm 

1= (Gr.) eu (good, true) + (Gr.) derma (skin)] [= <L.) macula (stain, 
spot)] 

Plecotus rafinesquii —pie ko' t66s ra fi" nes' ki‘ 

[= (Gr.) plekos (to twist or braid) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] [= Rafinesque's)] 
Plecotus townsendii— pie k6' t66s toun' s6n di‘ 

[= Townsend’s] 

Idionycterisphyllotis — id e 0 niV tflr is fi’l o' tis 

[= (Gr.) idios (one’s own) + (Gr.) nykteris (bat)] [= (Gr.) phyllon 
(leaf) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 



STANGL ET AL — PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 9 


Antrozous pallidus —an" trb zb' 66 s pSl i dd6s 

[= (Gr.) antron (cave) + (Gr.) zoos (living)] [=(L.) pallidus (pale)] 

Family Molossidae — mo 16' si de 

[= (Gr.) molossos (refers to mastiff-like wolf-dogs used in Molossia, 

a district in ancient Greece)] ^ w 

Tadarida brasiliensis —ta dar' i da bra sil e bn sis 

[= (NL.) tadarida (etymology uncertain—coined by Rafinesque; 
perhaps from “tadarida” (Gr.), meaning “long ones”] [= of Brazil] 
Nyctinomopsfemorosaccus— nik ti' no mops fe m6 r6 sak' 66 s 
[= (Gr.) nyktios (night) + (Gr.) nomos (custom of grazing) + (Gr.) 
ops (face)] [= (L.) femur (thigh) + (Gr.) sakkos (sack)] 
Nyctinomops macrotis —nik ti n& mbps ma kr6 tis 
[= (Gr.) makros (long) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Eumops glaucinus —yOb' mops glou' si nd6s 

[= (Gr.) eu (good, true) + (Malay) mops (name of a bat)] [= (Gr.) 

glaukinos (bluish-grey)] 

Eumops perotis —ybb' mops pb ro tis 
[= (Gr.) peros (maimed) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Eumops underwoodi —ybb' mbps un' dur w66d i 
[= Underwood’s] 

Order Xenarthra— zb nar' thra 

[= (Gr.) xenos (foreign) + (Gr.) arthron (joint)] 

Family Dasypodidae —da si p6' di de 

[= (Gr.) dasys (shaggy) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

Dasypus novemcinctus —dS' si pd6s ndvemsink td6s 
[= (L.) novem (nine) + (L.) cinctus (girdle)] 

Order Lagomorpha— lag 6 mor' fa 

[= (Gr.) lagos (hare) + (Gr.) morphe (form)] 

Family Ochotonidae — 6 k6 to' ni de 
[= (NL.) ochodona (pika)] 

Ochotona collaris — 6 k6 to' na k61 ar is 
[= (L.) collaris (of neck)] 

Ochotona princeps — 6 kb to' na prin sbps 
[= (L.) princeps (first)] 

Family Leporidae — le por' i de 
[= (L.) lepus (hare)] 

Brachylagus idahoensis —bra kif a gc)6s i da ho bn sis 
[= (Gr.) brachys (short) + (Gr.) lagos (hare)] [= of Idaho] 



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OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Sylvilagus aquaticus— silvifa gd6s a kwa'ti”kd6s 

[= (L.) silva (forest) + (Gr.) lagos (hare)] [= (L.) aquaticus 
(of water)] 

Sylvilagus audubonii—sil viTa gd6s ou'ddb bon f 
[= Audubon’s] 

Sylvilagus bachmani —silvif a gt)6s bak' man i 
[= Bachman’s] 

Sylvilagusfloridanus—sil viT a gd6s flor ida ndbs 
[= of Florida] 

Sylvilagus nuttallii —sil vif a gd6s nu' tal i 
[=Nuttall’s] 

Sylvilagus palustris— sil viT a gd6s pa ms tr is 
[= (L.) paluster (marshy)] 

Sylvilagus transitionalis—sil viT a gdbs tran sit"e 6nal'is 
[= (L.) transitio (going across)] 

Oryctolagus cuniculus—VT iktdl' a gctos kd6 ni' kCR5 ld6s 

[= (Gr.) oryktes (digger) + (Gr.) lagos (hare)] [= (L.) cuniculus 
(rabbit)] 

Lepus alleni —le' pd6s 51' €n i 
[= (L.) lepus (hare)] [= Allen’s] 

Lepus americanus —le' pd6s a mar" i” ka' nttos 
[= of (North) America] 

Lepus arctic us —le' pd6s ark'ti kd6s 
[= (Gr.) arkticos (of the Arctic)] 

Lepus californicus—le' pd6s kal" ifor' ni kd6s 
[= of California] 

Lepus callotis— le' pd6s kal 6' tTs 
[= (Gr.) kallos (beauty) + ous (ear)] 

Lepus capensis—le' pdbs ka pin' sis 
[= of the (African) Cape (of Good Hope)] 

Lepus othus—le'pd6s 6'thd6s 
[= (Gr.) otos (name of a giant)] 

Lepus townsendii— le' pdbs toun' s6n d[ 

[= Townsend’s] 

Order Rodentia— r6 dSn' te a 
[= (L.) rodere (gnaw)] 

Family Aplodontidae —ap 16 don' ti de 

[= (Gr.) haploos (simple) + (Gr.) odous (tooth)] 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 11 


Aplodontia rufa —ap 1(5 d6n' te a rU6 fa 

[= (Gr.) haploos (simple) + (Gr.) odous (tooth)] [= (L.) rufus 

(red)] 

Family Sciuridae —si GT5r' i de 

[= (Gr.) skia (shadow, shade) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] 

Tamias alpinus —ta' me as 51 pi nd6s 

[= (Gr.) tamias (steward, treasurer)] [= (L.) alpinus (alpine)] 

Tamias amoenus —ta' me as a me' ndbs 
[= (L.) amoenus (pleasing)] 

Tamias canipes —ta' me as k5n' i pez 
[= (L.) canus (white) + (L.) pes (foot)] 

Tamias cinereicollis —ta' me as si nar e kdl is 
[= (L.) cinereus (ashen) + (L.) collum (neck)] 

Tamias dorsalis— ta'me as dor s5' lis 
[= (ML.) dorsalis (pertaining to back)] 

Tamias merriami —ta' me as mar' e a mi 
[= Merriam’s] 

Tamias minimus —ta' me as min' i md6s 
[= (L.) minimus (small)] 

Tamias obscurus —ta' me as 6b skdbr d6s 
[= (L.) obscurus (dim)] 

Tamias palmeri —ta'me as pal mflri 
[= Palmer’s] 

Tamias panamintinus —ta' me as p5n" a min ti nd6s 
[= of Panamint (Mountains, California)] 

Tamias quadrimaculatus —ta'me as kwa"dri m5 k66 la td6s 
[= (L.) quattour (four) + (L.) macula (stain, spot)] 

Tamias quadrivittatus —ta'me as kwa dri vita td6s 
[= (L.) quattour (four) + (L.) vittatus (wearing a headband)] 

Tamias ruficaudus —ta' me as r60 f i kou dd6s 
[= (L.) rufus (red) + (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Tamias rufus —ta' me as rOT5' fc&s 
[= (L.) rufus (red)] 

Tamias sonomae —ta' me as s6 no' me 
[= of Sonoma (County, California)] 

Tamias speciosus —ta' me as spe se 6 sd6s 
[= (L.) speciosus (good-looking)] 

Tamias striatus— ta' me as stri a' td6s 
[= (L.) striatus (furrowed)] 



12 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Tamias townsendii—tZ' me as toun' s6n di r 
[= Townsend’s] 

Tamias umbrinus— ta' me as <*6m bri' ndbs 
[= (L.) umbra (shadow)] 

Marmota broweri —mar' m6 ta brou' ur i 

[= (Italian) marmotta (mountain mouse)] [= Brower’s] 

Marmota caligata— mar' m6 ta kal" i ga' ta 
[= (L.) caligatus (wearing heavy boots)] 

Marmotaflaviventris— mar' mb ta fla" vi vbn' tris 
[= (L.) flavus (yellow) + (L.) venter (belly)] 

Marmota monax —mar' mb ta mbn' aks 

[= (Amerindian) monax (digger) or (Gr.) monax (alone, solitary)] 
M armota Olympus—m ar' mbta 5 Urn 7 pdbs 
[= of Olympic (Mountains, Washington)] 

Marmota vancouverensis—mar' mo ta v3n koo " vfir en' si's 
[= of Vancouver (Island, British Columbia)] 

Ammospermophilus harrisii—Z mo spar mb' fil 66s har' is i 

[= (Gr.) ammos (sand) + (Gr.) sperma (seed) + (Gr.) philos (loving)] 
[= Harris’] 

Ammospermophilus interpres—Z mo spar mb' fil d6s in tar' pres 
[= (L.) interpres (intermediary)] 

Ammospermophilus leucurus—% mb spar mo' fil 66s lbb kOC' rd6s 
[= (Gr.) leukos (white) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] 

Ammospermophilus nelsoni—i mO spar mb' fil 66s nei' sb ni‘ 

[= Nelson’s] 

Spermophilus armatus— spar mo' fil 66s ar ma' td6s 

(= (Gr.) sperma (seed) + (Gr.) philos (loving)] [= (L.) armatus 
(armed)] 

Spermophilus beecheyi—spar mb' fil d6s be' che i" 

[= Beechey’s] 

Spermophilus beldingi— spar mb' fil 66s bel' ding i" 

[=Belding’s] 

Spermophilus brunneus— spar mb' fil 66s brdbn' e 66s 
(= (ML.) brunneus (dark brown)] 

Spermophilus columbianus —spar mb' fil 66 s kb lum" be a' ndbs 
t” of Columbia (Glacier or River?, Washington)] 

Spermophilus elegans —sp£r mb' fil 66s 61' 6 ganz 
[= (L.) elegans (fastidious)] 


j\L._PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 13 

Spermophilusfranklinii —spar mb' fil 66s frink lin i 
[= Franklin’s] 

Spermophilus lateralis —spar md' fil 66s la tar al is 
[= (L.) lateralis (of the side)] 

Spermophilus mexicanus —spar md' fil 66s mbk si ka n66s 
[= of Mexico] 

Spermophilus mohavensis —spar mo' fil 66s md ha vdn sis 
[= of Mohave (Desert, California)] 

Spermophilusparryii —spar md' fil 66s par's i 
[= Parry’s] 

Spermophilus richardsonii — spar md' fil 66s ri' chard sdm 
[= Richardson’s] 

Spermophilus saturatus — spar md'fil 66s sS"chura t66s 
[= (L.) saturatus (thoroughly infused)] 

Spermophilusspilosoma —spSrmo' fil 66s spil"dsd ma 
[= (Gr.) spilos (spot) + (Gr.) soma (body)] 

Spermophilus tereticaudus— spar md' fil 66s tar"S ti kou d66s 
[= (L.) teres (rounded) + (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Spermophilus townsendii —spar md' fil 66s toun sdn di 
[= Townsend’s] 

Spermophilus tridecemlineatus — spar md fil 66s 
tri dS" sem lin S a't66s 

[= (L.) tres (three) + (L.) decern (ten) + (L.) lineare (line)] 
Spermophilus variegatus —spar md' fil 66s var S S ja t66s 
[= (L.) variegare (diversify)] 

Spermophilus washingtoni —spar md' fil 66s washing ton i 
[= of Washington (State)] 

Cynomys gunnisoni —si'ndmis gun i sd ni 

[= (Gr.) kyon (dog) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= Gunnison’s] 

Cynomysleucurus —si'ndmis lfld kdb r66s 
[= (Gr.) leukos (white) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] 

Cynomys ludovicianus —s i' nd mis " dd vik t a n66s 

[= (ML.) ludovicus (of Louis [-iana Purchase])] 

Cynomys parvidens —si'ndmis par'vi danz 
[= (L.) parvus (small) + (L.) dens (tooth)] 

Sciurus aberti —si ddr' 66s & bur ti 

[= (Gr.) skia (shadow, shade) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] [= Abert s] 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 

Sciurus arizonensis —si ddr' d6s ar" i zo n6n' sis 
[= of Arizona)] 

Sciurus carol inensis~si Odr' 66s car" 6 \i n6n' sis 
[= of Carolina] 

Sciurus griseus—si ddr' d6s gri' se 66s 
[= (ML.) griseus (gray)] 

Sciurus nayaritensis— si" ddr' 66s ni ar i ten' sis 
[- of Nayarit (Mexico)] 

Sciurusniger— si ddr' 66s ni'jur 
[= (L.) niger (black)] 

Tamiasciurus douglasii— ts" me a si’ ddr' 66s dug' la si 

[= (Gr.) tamias (steward, treasurer) + (Gr.) skia (shadow, shade) + 
(Gr.) oura (tail)] [= Douglas’] 

Tamiasciurus hudsonicus— ta" me a si" oar' dris hud son' i kd6s 
[= of Hudson (Bay)] 

Glaucomyssabrinus— glou kd' mis sa brf' nd6s 

[= (Gr.) glaukos (grey) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= (NL.) sabrina (of 
Severn River [Ontario])] 

Glaucomys volans— glou ko' mis vd' lanz 
[= (L.) volare (fly)] 

Family Geomyidae —je 6 mi * i de 

t = (Gr.) gaia (land) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

Thomomysbottae— thd'md mi's bo' te 

[= (Gr.) thomos (heap) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= Botta’s] 

Thomomys bulbivorus— tho' mo mis bul bi' vor 66s 
[= (L.) bulbus (bulb) + (L.) vorare (swallow ravenously)] 
Thomomys clusius— thd' md mis kloo' se dbs 

[ = (L.) clusius (a Roman temple closed in peacetime)] 

Thomomys idahoensis— tho' mo mis i da hoen' sis 
[= of Idaho] 

Thomomys mazama —tho' mb mis ma za'ma 
[= of (Mount) Mazama (Oregon)] 

Thomomys monticola— thd' m6 mis m5n ti' ko la 
[= (L.) mons (mountain) + (L.) colere (inhabit)] 

Thomomys talpoides —tho' md mis tai poi' dez 
[= (L.) talpa (mole) + (Gr.) eidos (form)] 

Thomomys townsendii —thd' md mis toun' s£n di 
[= Townsend’s] 


STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 15 

Thomomys umbrinus —tho' m6 mis eftmbri'nefts 
[= (L.) umbra (shadow)] 

Geomys attwateri —je' 6 mis at wa tflr i 

[= (Gr.) gaia (land) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= Attwater’s] 

Geomys breviceps —je' 6 mis brd' vi sdps 
[= (L.) brevis (short) + (L.) caput (head)] 

Geomys bursarius —je' 6 mis bcftr sar' e efts 
[= (NL.) bursa (pouch)] 

Geomys knoxjonesi —je' 6 mis ndksjon zi 
[= Knox Jones’] 

Geomyspersonatus —je'6 mis par sbn& tdbs 
[= (L.) personatus (masked)] 

Geomyspinetis —je'6 mis pi ne'tis 
[= (L.) pinetum (piney woods)] 

Cratogeomys castanops— kra td je' 0 mis k3s' ta ndps 

[= (Gr.) kratos (strength) + (Gr.) gaia (land) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 
[= (Gr.) kastanea (chestnut) + (Gr.) ops (face)] 

Family Heteromyidae— he" tar 6 mi' i de 

[= (Gr.) heteros (the other) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

Perognathus alticolus—pt rdg' na thefts al ti' kd l<fts 

[= (Gr.) pera (pouch) + (Gr.) gnathos (jaw)] [= (L.) altus (high) + 

(L.) colere (inhabit)] 

Perognathus amplus —pS rog' na thefts am plefts 
[= (L.) amplus (ample)] 

Perognathus fasciatus —pe rdg' na thefts fS se a tefts 
[= (L.) fasciatim (in bundles)] 

Perognathus flavescens—pt rdg' na thefts fla v6' senz 
[= (L.) flavescere (turn yellow)] 

Perognathus flavus — pe rdg' na thefts fla' vefts 
[=(L.)flavus (yellow)] 

Perognathus inornatus—pz rdg' na thefts in or na tefts 
[= (L.) inomatus (unadorned)] 

Perognathus longimembris—pe rdg' na thefts ldn" je mem bris 
[= (L.) longus (long) + (L.) membrum (limb)] 

Perognathus parvus —pe rog' na thefts par vefts 
[= (L.) parvus (small)] 

Perognathus xanthonotus—pt rdg' na thefts z£n" tho no' tefts 
[= (Gr.) xanthos (yellow) + (Gr.) noton (back)] 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 

Chaetodipus baileyi— kg to di"' pd6s ba' lg i 

[= (NL.) chaeta (bristle) + (Gr.) dis (twice) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

[= Bailey’s] 

Chaetodipus californicus— ke to d[' p66s k&l" i fo/ m r kdbs 
[= of California] 

Chaetodipus fallax —kg to di"' pd6s far aks 
[= (L.) fallax (deceitful)] 

Chaetodipus formosus— kg to di' pd6s for mo' sd6s 
t = (L.) formosus (having fine form)] 

Chaetodipus hispidus— ke to di'' pdbs hiVpi r dd6s 
[= (L.) hispidus (shaggy)] 

Chaetodipus intermedius—ke to di' pd6s in"tar mg' de <fts 
f= (L.) intermedius (intermediate)] 

Chaetodipus nelsoni—kt to di' p06s nel' sO ni' 

[= Nelson’s] 

Chaetodipus penicillatus— ke t6 dP p<S6s p&i'isiU' td6s 
[= (L.) penicillus (paintbrush)] 

Chaetodipus spinatus— kg to di' pd6s spi na' td6s 
[= (L.) spina (thorn)] 

Microdipodops megacephalus—mi" krO di' po dOps 
mg" ga sgf' a ld6s 

[= (Gr.) mikros (small) + (Gr.) dis (twice) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

[= (Gr.) megas (big) + (Gr.) kephale (head)] 

Microdipodopspallidus—mi" krO di'' po dOps p*l' idd6s 
(= (L.) pallidus (pale)] 

Dipodomys agilis—di pO' d finis a jit is 

[= (Gr.) dis (twice) + (Gr.) pous (foot) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

[= (L.)agilis (agile)] 

Dipodomys californicus—di P 6' di mi's k51" f for' ni kd6s 
[= of California] 

Dipodomys compactus—di po'di mi's kom pak' td6s 
[= (L.) compactus (joined together)] 

Dipodomys deserti—di po' di mis dg'zurti 
[= of desert] 

Dipodomys elator—di pO' di r mi's g la' tdr 
[ = (f •) ex (out) + (L.) lator (bringer)J 
Dipodomys elephantinus—di pO' di r mis gl" g fan ti' nd6s 
[= (L.) elephantinus (of elephant)] 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 17 


Dipodomys heermanni —dipo'dimis hirima ni 
[= Heermann’s] 

Dipodomys ingens —di po' di mis in jenz 
[= (L.) ingens (huge)] 

Dipodomys merriami —di p6' di mis mar t a mi 
[= Merriam’sJ 

Dipodomys microps —di p6' di mis mi krdps 
[= (Gr.) mikros (small) + (Gr.) ops (face)] 

Dipodomys nitratoides —di po' di mis ni tra toi dez 
[= (L.) nitratus (mixed with nitrate) + (Gr.) eidos (form)] 
Dipodomys ordii —di pd' di mis or di 
[= Ord’s] 

Dipodomys panamintinus —di p6' di mis pan" a min ti nd6s 
[- of Panamint (Mountains, California)] 

Dipodomys spectabilis —di p6 di mis sp6k ta bi lis 
[= (L.) spectabilis (worth looking at)] 

Dipodomys stephensi —di p<3' di mis ste v6n si 
[= Stephens’] 

Dipodomys venustus —di pd' di mis vSntJOs td6s 
[= (L.) venustus (charming)] 

Liomys irroratus —li' o m is ir" 0 ra td6s 

[= (Gr.) leios (plain, without distinguishing features) + (Gr.) mys 
(mouse)] [= (L.) irrorare (moisten with dew)] 

Family Castoridae —kis tor i d6 
[= (Gr.) kastor (beaver)] 

Castor canadensis —kSs' tor kan" a d6n sis 
[= of Canada] 

Family Cricetidae— kri sS' ti de 
[= (NL.) cricetus (hamster)] 

Oryzomys argentatus —or izf6 mis ar jfin ta t<)6s 

[= (Gr.) oryza (rice) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= (L.) argentum 

(silver)] 

Oryzomys couesi —or i/ 6 mis ktro zi 
[=Coues’] 

Oryzomys palustris— or iz^ 6 mis pal 53s' tris 
[= (L.) paluster (marshy)] 

Reithrodontomysfulvescens —rith" r6 d6n' t6 mis ful vS s€nz 
[= (Gr.) rheithron (stream or channel, referring to groove) + (Gr.) 
odous (tooth) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= (L.) fulvus (brown)] 



OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 

Reithrodontomys humulis—rith" rOdOn' to mis h66m' 66 lis 
t= (L.) humus (earth)] 

Reithrodontomys megalotis—rith* ro don' to mis meg" a 10' tis 
t= (Gr.) megas (big) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Reithrodontomys montanus—rlih " rO dOn' to mis mon ta' n66s 
[= (L.) montanus (of the mountains)] 

Reithrodontomys raviventris— rith" rO dOn' to mis 
r&v" i vgn' tris 

[= (L.) ravus (tawny) + (L.) venter (belly)] 

Peromyscus attwateri—pe" rO mis' k66s at' wa tur i 

[= (Gr.) pera (pouch) + (Gr.) myskos (little mouse)] [= Attwater’s] 
Peromyscus boylii—pt" rO mis' k66s boi' 1 i 
[= Boyle’s] 

Peromyscus californicus—pt" rO mis' k66s kal" i for' ni k66s 
[= of California] 

Peromyscus crinitus— pe" rO mis'k66s krf ni' t66s 
[= (L.) crinitus (long-haired)] 

Peromyscus difficilis— P e"rO mis' k66s di fik' i Us 
[= (L.) difficilis (troublesome)] 

Peromyscus eremicus —pe" ro mis' k66s 6 re'mi r k66s 
[= (Gr.) eremikos (solitary)] 

Peromyscusgratus —pe" ro mis'k66s gra' t66s 
[= (L.) gratus (thankful)] 

Peromyscus gossypinus~pt" rO mis'kdbs gO sip' i n66s 
[= (L.) gossypinum (cotton plant)] 

Peromyscus leucopus—pe" to mis' k66s loo' ko p66s 
[= (Gr.) leukos (white) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

Peromyscus maniculatus —pe" rO mis' k66s m3nik"y00 la'td6s 
[= (L.) manicula (small hand)] 

Peromyscusmelanotis— pe" rO mis'kdbs mel a no' tis 
[= (Gr.) melas (black) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Peromyscus oreas—pt" rO mis' k66s or' e as 
[= (Gr.) oros (mountain)] 

Peromyscus merriami—pt" rO mis'k66s mar' e a mi 
[= Merriam’s] 

Peromyscus pectoral is — pe" rO mis'kdbs p6k tor SI' is 
[= (L.) pectoralis (of the breast)] 

Peromyscuspolionotus—pi" rO mis'k66s po le‘ 0 no' t66s 
[= (Gr.) polios (gray) + (Gr.) noton (back)] 



STANGL ET AL.— PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 19 

Peromyscus sitkensis —pe" ro mis'kdbs sit ken sis 
[= of Sitka (Alaska)] 

Peromyscus truei —pe" ro mis'kdbs tr?5o i 
[= True’s] 

Podomysfloridanus —pSd' 6mis flor i da' nd6s 

[= (Gr.) pous (foot) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= of Florida] 
Ochrotomys nuttalli—<5 kr6' to mis nu tal i 

[= (Gr.) ochros (pale) + (Gr.) ous (ear) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

[= NuttalFs] 

Baiomys taylori —bi'dmis ta lor i 

[= (Gr.) baios (small) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= Taylor’s] 
Onychomys arenicola —o ni' ko mis ar 6 ni ko la 

[= (Gr.) onyx (claw) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [= (L.) harena (sand) + 

(L.) colere (inhabit)] 

Onychomys leucogaster —oni'komis ItJD kO g2s tar 

[= (Gr.) leukos (white) + (Gr.) gaster (belly)] 

Onychomys torridus — o ni' ko mis toi / i dd6s 
[= (L.) torridus (burnt)] 

Sigmodon arizonae —sig'mo don ar i zo ne 

[= (Gr.) sigma (S-shaped, sigmoid) + (Gr.) odous (tooth)] 

[= of Arizona] 

Sigmodon fulviventer —sig'mo don fd6l vi ven tar 
[= (L.) fulvus (brown) + (L.) venter (belly)] 

Sigmodon hispidus —sig' mo d<5n his'pi dd6s 
[= (L.) hispidus (shaggy)] 

Sigmodon ochrognathus —sig'moddn okrdg na thd6s 
[= (Gr.) ochros (pale) + (Gr.) gnathos (jaw)] 

Neotoma albigula —ne 6t' 6 ma SI bi gd6 la 

[= (Gr.) neos (new, young) + (Gr.) tomos (cutting)] [= (L.) albus 

(white) + (L.) gula (throat)] 

Neotoma cinerea —ne 6t' 6 ma si nar e a 
[= (L.) cinereus (ashen)] 

Neotoma devia — n6 6t' 6 ma de v6 a 
[= (L.) devius (out-of-the-way)] 

Neotoma flor idana —ne ot' 6 ma flor" i da' na 
[= of Florida] 

Neotoma fuscipes — ne 6t' 6 ma fdb' si pez 
[= (L.) fuscus (dusky) + (L.) pes (foot)] 



20 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Neotoma lepida—nt dt' 6 ma 16' pi da 
[= (L.) lepidus (channing)] 

Neotoma mexicana—ne dt' 6 ma mek si ka' na 
[= of Mexico] 

Neotoma micropus— ne 6l' 6 ma mi' kropofts 
[= (Gr.) mikros (small) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

Neotoma stephensi—nb ot' 6 ma ste' ven si 
[= Stephens’] 

Clethrionomyscalifornicus— kle" thre 6 no'm is 
kal" i for' ni kefts 

[= (Gr.) kleithrios (alder wood) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

[= of California] 

Clethrionomysgapperi—kle" thre ond' mis ga' pfir i‘ 
[=Gapper’s] 

Clethrionomysrutilus— kle" thre e ne' mi's riTO' ti'l d6s 
[= (L.) rutilus (ruddy)] 

Phenacomys albipes—fb na' kd mi“s 4T bf pez 

[- (Gr.) phenax (cheat, misleading) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] [=(L.) 
albus (white) + (L.) pes (foot)] 

Phenacomys intermedius—ib na' kd mis in" tar me' de efts 
[= (L.) intermedius (intermediate)] 

Phenacomys longicaudus—fi na' k6 mis ldn" ji kou' d<56s 
(= (L.) longus (long) + (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Microtus abbreviate—mi krO' td6s a bre"ve h' tt)6s 

[= (Gr.) mikros (small) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] [= (L.) abbreviare 
(shorten)] 

Microtus californicus— mi krd' tefts kal" i f6r' n[ kefts 
[= of California] 

Microtus canicaudus— mi krd' tefts ka" m r kou' dofts 
[= (L.) canus (white) + (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Microtus chrotorrhinus —mf kro' lefts kro to rf' nefts 
I - (Gr.) chros (skin color) + (Gr.) rhinos (hide)] 

Microtus longicaudus —mi kro' lefts Ion" ji r kou' defts 
1= (L.) longus (long) + (L.) cauda (tail)] 

Microtus mexicanus—mi kro' lefts mek si ka' nefts 
[= of Mexico] 

Microtus miurus —mi kro' lefts mi' mP ofts 
[= (Gr.) meion (lesser) + (Gr.) oura (tail)] 


ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 21 

Microtus montanus —mi kro' tdds mdn ta nd6s 
[= (L.) montanus (of the mountains)] 

Microtus ochrogaster —mi kro' tdbs 6 krd gas tar 
[= (Gr.) ochros (pale) + (Gr.) gaster (belly)] 

Microtus oeconomus —mi kro' tdbs t kdn 6 mt)6s 
[= (Gr.) oikos (house) + (Gr.) nomos (custom)] 

Microtus oregoni —mi krd tdds or 6 go ni 
[= of Oregon] 

Microtus pennsylvanicus —mi krd' td6s p6n sil v3 ni kdbs 
[- of Pennsylvania] 

Microtuspinetorum —mi krd' td6s pi ne tor 66m 
[= (L.) pinetum (piney wood)] 

Microtus richardsoni —mi krd' td6s ri' chard so ni 
[= Richardson’s] 

Microtus townsendii —mi kro' tdds toun sdn di 
[= Townsend’s] 

Microtus xanthognathus— mi krd' tdbs z3n thdg' na thdbs 
[= (Gr.) xanthos (yellow) + (Gr.) gnathos (jaw)] 

Lemmiscus curtatus —16 mis' kd6s kddr ta tdbs 

[= (NL.) lemmus (lemming)] [= (L.) curtare (cut short)] 

Neofiber alleni —ne df* ib3r 31 6n i 

[= (Gr.) neos (young) + (L.) fiber (beaver)] 1= Allen’s] 

Ondatra zibethicus —dn d3t' ra zi beth i kd6s 

[= (Huron) ondatra (muskrat)] [= (ML.) zibethum (civet)] 

Lemmus sibiricus —16' md6s si bir'ikdds 
[= (NL.) lemmus (lemming)] [= of Siberia] 

Synaptomys borealis —si n3p' to mis bor e 31 is 

[= (Gr.) syn (together) + (Gr.) haptein (fasten) + (Gr.) mys (mouse)] 

[= (Gr.) boreas (northern)] 

Synaptomys cooperi —si nap' to mis kdd pur i 
[= Cooper’s] 

Dicrostonyx exsul —di krds' to niks 6k sd6l 

[= (Gr.) dikroos (forked) + (Gr.) stonyx (sharp point)] [= (L.) exsul 

(exile)] 

Dicrostonyx groenlandicus—dl krSs' 16 niks gren lin' di kd6s 
[= of Greenland] 

Dicrostonyx hudsonius— di krds' td niks hud sd' ne dbs 
[= of Hudson (Bay)] 



22 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Dicrostonyx nelsoni— di kids' to niks n61' so ni 
[= Nelson’s] 

Dicrostonyx richardsoni—di kros' ton iks r i' chard so ni 
[= Richardson’s] 

Dicrostonyx rubric at us —di kros' to n iks rSQ bri ka' td6s 
[= (L.) rubricatus (reddened)] 

Dicrostonyxstevensoni—di kros' toniks ste' vdn soni 
[= Stevenson’s] 

Family Muridae— mOSr' f de 
[= (L.) mus (mouse)] 

Rattus norvegicus —ra' tdbs nor ve' ji“ kd6s 
[= (NL.) rattus (rat)] [= (NL.) of Norway] 

Rattus rattus —r5' td6s r5' td6s 
[= (NL.) rattus (rat)] 

Mus musculus— mtros mdbs' kd6 ldbs 

[= (L.) mus (mouse)] [= (L.) musculus (little mouse)] 

Family Zapodidae— za po' di de 

[= (Gr.) za (very) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

Zopus hudsonius — za' pdbs hud so' ne d6s 
[= of Hudson (Bay)] 

Zap us princeps —za' pd6s prin' seps 
[= (L.) princeps (First)] 

Zapus trinotatus—zX pd6s tri no ta' td6s 
[= (L.) tres (three) + (L.) notatus (marked)] 

Napaeozapus insignis— n3 pe 0 za' pdbs in sig' nis 

[= (Gr.) napaios (of wooded vale) + (Gr.) za (very) + (Gr.) pous 
(foot)] 

[= (L.) insignis (conspicuous)] 

Family Erethizontidae— ar i thi' zdn' ti de 
[— (Gr.) erethizon (to irritate, rousing to anger)] 

Erethizon dorsatum— ar i thi"' zon dor sa' td6m 
[= (L.) dorsum (back)] 

Family Myocastoridae— mi' okas tor' ide 
[= (Gr.) mys (mouse) (Gr.) kastor (beaver)] 

Myocastor coypus—ml 0 kas' tor koi' pd6s 

[— (South American) coypu (name of a rodent)] 

Order Carnivora— kar mV or a 

[= (L.) caro (flesh) + (L.) vorare (eat)] 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 23 

Family Canidae —kS' ni de 
[= (L.) canis (dog)] 

Canis latrans —k5' nis la' tranz 
[= (L.) latrare (bark)] 

Canis lupus —ka'nis ld6' pd6s 
[= (L.) lupus (wolf)] 

Canis rufus —kS' nis rOO' fdbs 
[= (L.) rufus (red)] 

Alopex lagopus —a lo' p£ks la gd pd6s 

[= (Gr.) alopex (fox)] [= (Gr.) lagos (hare) + (Gr.) pous (foot)] 

Vulpes macrotis —vd6l' pes makro tis 

[= (L.) vulpes (fox)] [= (Gr.) makros (long) + (Gr.) ous (ear)] 

Vulpes velox —vd6l' p6s ve' loks 
[= (L.) velox (swift)] 

Vulpes vulpes—vd 61' pfis vdbl' pes 
[= (L.) vulpes (fox)] 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus—yur & si on si nar"e o ar jen te d6s 
[= (Gr.) oura (tail) + (Gr.) kyon (dog)] [= (Gr.) cinereus (ashen) + 
(Gr.) argenteus (silver)] 

Urocyon littoralis —yur & si 6n li" tor 51' is 
[= (L.) litoralis (of sea shore)] 

Family Ursidae— dbr' si de 
[= (L.) ursus (bear)] 

Ursus americanus —d6r' sdbs a mar i ka ndbs 
[= of (North) America] 

Ursus arctos —d6r' sd6s ark tds 
[= (Gr.) arktos (bear)] 

Ursus maritimus —d6r' sd6s mar i ti md6s 
[= (L.) maritumus (of the sea)] 

Family Procyonidae— pro si on' i de 
[= (Gr.) pro (before) + (Gr.) kyon (dog)] 

Bassariscus astutus —bS sar is' kdbs a stbO td6s 
[= (Gr.) bassara (fox)] [= (L.) astutus (cunning)] 

Procyon lotor —prb' si 6n 10' tor 

[= (Gr.) pro (before) + (Gr.) kyon (dog)] [= (NL.) lotor (washer)] 

Nasua nasua —nS' shtHT a n5 shOU a 

[= (L.) nasus (nose)] [= (L.) nasus (nose)] 

Family Mustelidae —mdb ste' li de 
[= (L.) mustela (weasel)] 



24 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 

Maries americana-mir' t€s a mar" i ka' na 
[= (L.) martes (martin)] [= of (North) America] 

Maries pennanti — mar' tds p6 nan'ti 
[= Pennant’s] 

Mustelaerminea— mdt> stef a ar min' e a 

[= (L.) mustela (weasel)] [= (Old French) ermine (stoat or weasel] 
Mustelafrenata— md6stgl' a frdna'ta 
[= (L.) frenare (bridle)] 

Mustela nigripes—mdb stel' a nij' ri” pez 
[= (L.) niger (black) + (L.) pes (foot)] 

Mustela nivalis—m66 stel' a m r val' is 
f= (L.) nivalis (snowy)] 

Mustela vison —md6 stel' a v[' sfin 
[= (French) vison (mink)] 

Gulogulo —giro'lo giro'16 

[= (L.) gulo (glutton)] [= (L.) gulo (glutton)] 

Taxidea taxus— tak si' de a tSk' sd6s 

[= (NL.) taxus (badger) + (Gr.) idea (form)] [= (NL.) taxus 
(badger)] 

Spilogalegracilis— spT 16' g£l e gra' sil is 

[= (Gr.) spilos (spot) + (Gr.) galee (weasel)] [= (L.) gracilis 
(slender)] 

Spilogaleputorius— spi 16' gdl e plTO tor' e 66 s 
[= (L.) putor (rottenness)] 

Mephitis macroura—me f[' tis ma kriro' ra 

[= (L.) mefltis (noxious exhalation)] [= (Gr.) makros (long) + (Gr.) 
oura (tail)] 

Mephitis mephitis— me fi~' tis me fi"' tis 
[= (L.) mefitis (noxious exhalation)] 

Conepatus leuconotus— k6 n6' pa td6s llTO k6 n6' t66s 

[= (Gr.) konis (dust) + (Gr.) patein (walk) or (Aztec) conepatyl 
(digging skunk)] = [(Gr.) leukos (white) + (Gr.) noton (back)] 
Conepatus mesoleucus— k6 ne' pa tttos me s6 liro' kd6s 
[~ (Gr.) mesos (middle) + (Gr.) leukos (white)] 

Lutra canadensis—tin' tra kan" a den' sis 
[= (L.) lutra (otter)] [= of Canada] 

Enhydra lutris—Z n' hi dra 166' tris 

[= (Gr.) enhydris (otter)] [= (L.) lutra (otter)] 


STANGL ET AL—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 25 

Family Felidae— fe' li de 

[= (L.) feles (small carnivore)] 

Felis concolor —fe' lis kon' kdl or 
[= (L.) concolor (having same color)] 

Felis lynx — fe' lis links 
[= (Gr.) lynx (lynx)] 

Felis onca—ft' lis onk' a 
[= (NL.) onca (spotted cat)] 

Felispardalis — ft' lis par' da lis 
[= (L.) pardus (large spotted animal)] 

Felis rufus —fe' lis rOb' fd6s 
[= (L.) rufus (red)] 

Felis wiedii —fe'lis we'di 
[= Wied’s] 

Felis yagouaroundi —fe' lis ya g W ar OOn di 
[= (Tupi) jaguarundi (type of cat)] 

Order Artiodactyla— ar te 6 dak' til a 

[= (Gr.) artios (even, complete) + Gr.) daktylos (finger or toe)] 

Family Suidae —sGT>' i de 
l=(L.) sus (pig)] 

Sus scrofa —sCTOs skro' fa 
[= (L.) scrofa (breeding sow)] 

Family Tayassuidae— ti a sTO' i de 

[= (Tupi) taya (farinaceous tuberous root) + (Tupi) cu (eat); 
native names for Tayassu tajacu include tayassu, tajassou, tajacu, 
tajoussou —see Palmer, 1904] 

Tayassu tajacu —ti £'sUU tajd kdo 

[= (Tupi) taya (farinaceous tuberous root) + (Tupi) cu (eat)] 

Family Cervidae— sar'vi de 
[= (L.) cervus (stag)] 

Cervusaxis —sar'vd6s ak'sis 

[= (L.) axis (an Indian quadruped)] 

Cervus dama —sar' vd6s da ma 
[= (L.) dama (deer)] 

Cervus elaphus —sar' vdbs 6' la fd6s 
[= (Gr.) elaphos (deer)] 

Cervus nippon —sar' vd6s ni p6n 
[= of Nippon (Japan)] 



26 


OCCASIONAL PAPERS MUSEUM TEXAS TECH UNIVERSITY 


Odocoileus hemionus—d d<5 se' le 66s he me' 6 nd6s 

[=(Gr.) odous (tooth) + (Gr.) koilos (hollow)] [= (Gr.) hemionos 
(half-ass)] 

Odocoileus virginianus—6 d6 se' le 66 s vir ji" ne a' n66s 
1= of Virginia] 

Alces alces —31' ses 31' ses 

[= (L.) alee (European elk or moose)] [= (L.) alee (European elk 
or moose)] 

Ran gifer tarandus— r3n' jf fur ta ran' d66s 

[= (Old French) rangier (reindeer) + (L.) ferns (undomesticated)] 
[= (Gr.) tarandros (a homed beast)] 

Family Antilocapridae— an til 6 kSp' ri r de 

[= (LGr.) antholops (beast with elongated horns) + (L.) capra (she-goat)] 
Antilocapra americana—an til 6 kip' ra a mar" i r ka' na 
[= (Gr.) antholops (beast with elongated horns) + (L.) capra 
(she-goat)] [= of (North) America] 

Family Bovidae— bo' vi r de 
[= (L.) bos (ox or cow)] 

Boselaphus tragocamelus— bo sS' la f66s trS go ca me' 166s 
[= (L.) bos (ox or cow) + (Gr.) elaphos (deer)] [= (Gr.) tragos 
(he-goat) + (Gr.) kamelos (camel)] 

Bison bison —bi' sdn bi' sdn 

[= (Gr.) bison (bison)] [= (Gr.) bison (bison)] 

Antilope cervicapra—i n ti' 16 pe sar vi kap' ra 

[= (LGr.) antholops (beast with elongated horns)] [= (L.) cervus 
(stag) + (L.) capra (she-goat)] 

Oreamnos americanus— or t am' nos a mar" i” ka' nd6s 
[= (Gr.) oros (mountain) + (Gr.) amnos (lamb)] [= of (North) 
America] 

Ovibos moschatus —o' vi bd6s m6 ska' td6s 

[= (L.) ovis (sheep) + (L.) bos (ox or cow)] [= (NL.) muschatus 
(musky)] 

Ovis canadensis —6' Vi's kSn" a den'sis 
[= (L.) ovis (sheep)] [= of Canada] 

Ovis dalli —o' vis dal'i" 

[= Dali’s] 

Ammotragus lervia—i md' tr3 gdbs lar' v€ a 

[= (Gr.) ammos (sand) + (Gr.) tragos (he-goat)] [= lerwee 



STANGL ET AL.—PRONUNCIATION AND ETYMOLOGY FOR MAMMALS 27 

(a once-applied English common name for north African wild 
sheep)] 


Acknowledgments 

We thank Walter W. Dalquest, J. Knox Jones, Jr., Richard W. Manning Miny 
Mastorakis. Carole J. Young, Don E. Wilson, and two anonymous reviewers for their 
suggestions and thoughtful reviews of earlier drafts of this manuscript. 

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’ magueyeros del gdnero Leptonycteris (Chiroptera: Phyllostoimdae). ActaZool. 

Baker r'TT'c' p ArroN H. H. Genoways. and J. W. Bickham. 1988. Genic studies of 
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Baker R J !s.K. Davis, R. D. Bradley, M. J. Hamilton, andR. A. Van Db< Bussche. 

’ 1989 Ribosomal-DNA. mitochondrial-DNA. chromosomal, and allozymic 
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Brown, W. R. 1956. Composition of scientific words. Smithsonian lnsutution Press, 

Washington, D.C., 882 pp. - 1HPllh i /- n 

Borror, D. J. 1971. Dictionary of word roots and combining forms. Mayfield Publ. Co., 

Borror. M D + J., 3 D P M. De Long, and C. A. Tripplehorn. 1981. An introduction to the study 

of insects Saunders Co., 5th ed., xi + 827 pp. 

Caire, W, J. D. Tyler. B. P. Glass, and M. A. Mares. 1990. Mammals of Oklahoma. 

Univ. Oklahoma Press, Norman, xiii +567 pp. fp 

Conisbef L R. 1953. A list of the names proposed for genera and subgenera of Recent 

mammals from the publication of T. S. Palmer’s Judex Cenerum Mamma,.am 
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Glare, P. G. W. (ed.). 1982. Oxford Latin dictionary. Oxford Univ. Press, New Yo , 

Gotch, A X F + 1979. Mammals—their Latin names explained. Blanford Press Ltd., Poole, 

Gray, P. 1972. Student dictionary of biology. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, vi + 

Henderson.LF., and W.D. Henderson. 1963. Adictionary of biological terms. D.Van 

Nostrand Co., New York, 8th ed.,vi+1273 pp. 

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Jones, J. K., Jr., D. M. Armstrong, R. S. Hoffmann, and C. Jones. 1983. Mammals of the 
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Jones, J K., Jr ; q ^ C Carter, H. H. Genoways, R. S. Hoffmann, D. W. Rice, and C. 

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Kenneth, J. H. 1963^ Introduction. Pp. v-vi, in A dictionary of biological terms (I F. 
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Falls. Texas76308 (FBS and EJG); Department of Classical and Romance Languages 

Zmed24 jZ7ml: ' Tems 79409 ,PGC> 20 Nm ™ h " ^ 



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